Эрдэм шинжилгээ, судалгаа

01. Cognitive Science in Mongolia
Author: Sara Invitto & University of the Humanities

UNIVERSITY OF THE HUMANITIES COGNITIVE SCIENCE IN MONGOLIA November 2012 Issue No.2                         Sarah Invitto Researcher in General Psychology Professor in General Psychology Ph.D. Clinical Psychology          In relation to the visitation of Ph.D. Sarah Invitto in Mongolia, University of The Salento has organized Conference in affiliation with University of The Humanities between 17 to 29th October 2012. After execution of conference, University of the Humanities has deliberately published Cognitive Science in Mongolia - research publication as a second issue of University of The Humanities in November.    This issue includes following topics;
  • Brain & Language: The Origin of Language, Musical Perception
  • Basics of Brain: Neuron Structure
  • Electroencephalogram (EEG) and Human Event Related Potentials (ERP)
  • Language: ERP and Brain
  • Guidelines for ERP recording in Language's Studies, recording Standard and Publication Criteria
  • Language Mismatch Negativity
  • Cognition and Number Representation
  • Bilingual Brain

02. Humanities Journal of Education
University of the Humanities

03. Government policy on Lingual Problems
University of the Humanities


04. National & Foreign Language in Globalization
University of the Humanities


05. Memoir (Works in Research) - English, Russian, Mongolian
University of the Humanities


06. The Economic development of Mongolia and technology
Author: Erdenetuul Sereeter

07. The population bonus and Economic effectiveness of ODA for Mongolia
Author: Erdenetuul Sereeter

08. The Economic development and demographic bonus of Mongolia
Author: Erdenetuul Sereeter

09. Solving traveling salesman problem by dynamic programming
Author: Ch.Battuvshin, B.Chimed-Ochir & R.Enkhbat

10. Vector-Based Approach to Verbal Cognition
Author: Chuluundorj Begz

11. Quadratic optimization over a polyhedral set International Mathematical Forum
Author: T. Bayartugs, Ch. Battuvshin, R. Enkhbat

INTERNATIONAL MATHEMATICAL FORUM   Online Edition, Vol. 9, 2014, no. 13-16 


T. Bayartugs, Ch. Battuvshin, R. Enkhbat Quadratic optimization over a polyhedral set International Mathematical Forum, Vol. 9, 2014, no. 13, 621-629 http://dx.doi.org/10.12988/imf.2014.4234

12. Mathematical Approaches to Cognitive Linguistics
Author: Chuluundorj Begz. Vol.2 No. 4, July 2013, International Journal of Applied Linguistics @ English Lit

13. Application of Game Theory to Investment Decisions
Author: Ch.Battuvshin and B.Chimed-Ochir, University of the Humanities, Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia


14. Evaluating the symptoms of Dutch disease in Mongolian economy
Author: Galbadrakh Baatarbat, University of the Humanities, Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia

Evaluating the symptoms of Dutch disease in Mongolian economy

Galbadrakh Baatarbat

University of the Humanities

E-mail: galbadrakh@humanities.mn

The main goal of this research work is to define whether the Dutch disease is apparent in Mongolia, based on the figures of macro economy and mining sectors.

According to the economic theories, there are a number of assumptions how mining resource affects the social-economic development. The most serious issue the countries which has natural resource faces is the profits from mining sector leads to currency appreciation, increase in export products, and falling-off of production and export.

There has been a boom in Mongolian mining sectors and putting the mining industries into usage shows a tendency tending to increase in the coming years. We assume that there is a possibility of the Dutch disease in Mongolia due to a huge specific weight of mining sector in total production and profit.

In the research part, we have studied how tugriks affect the rate, using the model of Balasssa Samuelson.

We have done research using OLS methods with the help of logarithm model, accumulating REER from 2006 to Sep 2012, production and export of mining sectors, FDI, foreign aids, government expenditure and rate data of main product of mining sector. To sum up the result, the following symptoms of the Dutch disease have appeared in the Mongolian economy.

  • Overgrowth in mining sector affects the rate
  • Industrial growth is below-scaled
  • Growth in service sector is over-scaled
  • Wage increase in all sectors is high


[1] Corden Wax W. and Nyary Peter J., (1982) Booming sector and De-Industrialisation in a Small Open Economy, The economic Journal, Vol.92, No 368, pp. 825-848.

[2] Mouhamadou Sy. Hamidreza Tabarraei., (2009) Capital inflows and exchange rate in LDCs: The Dutch disease problem revisited, Working paper N 2009-26 pp. 1-32.

15. Application of Dynamic Programming to Cash Flow Process
Author: Ch.Battuvshin, University of the Humanities, Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia


16. Application of threshold autoregressive model to exchange rate of USD in Mongolia
Author: Batsuuri Dovdon Business school of University of the Humanities, Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia

Application of threshold autoregressive model to exchange rate of USD in Mongolia

Batsuuri Dovdon

University of the Humanities

E-mail: batsuuri@humanities.mn

Threshold Autoregressive (TAR) models are popular among nonlinear time-series. TAR
models are proposed by Tong (1978) and discussed in detail in Tong and Lim (1980).
Hansen (1997) gives the analytic form of the asymptotic distribution for self-exciting TAR(2) models.
The main goal of my research is to define whether there is a nonlinearity behaviour in ex-change rate of USD to tugrug. I assume that there is a nonlinearity in rate of USD. Thus, to model nonlinear behaviour in exchange rate of USD, we used self-exciting TAR models with two regimes. The data is monthly average exchange rate of USD covering the period from January, 1993 to March 2013, (Figure 1)

TAR/exchange rate.jpg
Figure 1: source: The Central Bank of Mongolia
The results of my research is consistent with my hypothesis that the rate of USD is a non-linear process. In addition to the testing of nonlinearity of USD, the threshold variable of the model is defined and values of the next 12 months is predicted according to the model. Matlab is used for the analysis of the research. The regime of the TAR model is built corresponding to economic contractions of exchange rate in Mongolia.

[1] Hansen, B.E., Inference in TAR Models, Studies in Nonlinear Dynamics and Econo-metrics, 2, 1-14, 1997.
[2] Hamilton, J.D., Time Series Analysis, Princeton University Press, 1994.


17. Simulation and Forecasting of Cointegrated Multivariate Time Series
Author: Makhgal.G 1 Mungunsukh.Sh 2 School of Mathematics and Computer Science, National University of Mongolia


18. Live-trapping studies - How to estimate two small rodents densities using spatially explicit capture
Author: P.Tserendavaa, University of the Humanities, Mongolia


19. Quantitative Models in Cognitive Linguistics
Author: Chuluundorj Begz. The International Forum on Cognitive Modeling (IFCM-2013)

20. Cognitive Typology
Author: Author: Chuluundorj Begz. COGSCI 2012 The annual meeting of the cognitive science society

21. The 9th International Conference on Optimization: Techniques and Applications
Author: Profit-Maximization in Oligopoly Market with Uncertain Cost Battuvshin Chuluundorj (University of the Humanities, Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia)

Profit-Maximizationin Oligopoly Market with Uncertain Cost
Battuvshin Chuluundorj (Universityof the Humanities, Mongolia)
Chimed-Ochir Baljinnyam (University of the Humanities,Mongolia)

22. Vector Field Analysis of Verbal Structures
Author: B.Chuluundorj British Journal of Applied Science & Technology 2015, Vol. 12, issue 3. London, X(X): XX-XX, 20YY, Article no. BJAST, 20YY, OXX

23. A Research Study on the Development of the Indicators to Assess the Tourism Impacts on Protected Areas of Mongolia
Author: Navchaa Tugjamba and Erdenetuul Sereeter (University of the Humanities, Mongolia)

24. Live-trapping studies – How to estimate two small rodents densities using spatially explicit capture-recapture (SECR) model
Author: Tserendavaa Purevjal (Unversity of the Humanities,Mongolia)

25. Economic Assessment of the Impact of Climate Change in the Ulz River Basins
Author: Amarbayasgalan Gantumur (University of the Humanities, Mongolia)

26. Ecosystem based river basin management planning in critical water catchment in Mongolia
Author: Navchaa Tugjamba(University of the Humanities, Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia tnavch@yahoo.com ), Erdenetuul Sereeter(University of the Humanities, Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia erdenetuul@humanities.mn), Sarantuya Gonchigjav(Mongolian University of Science and Technology, Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia)

27. Water scarcity and adaptation strategy under climate change in Luni river basin, India
Author: N. Tugjamba , P.Van der Zaag, T.Bresser

28. Northeast Asian Security Issues and Mongolia's «Third Neighbor» Policy
Author: D.Ulambayar ERINA REPORT. Economic Research Institute for Northeast Asia. Novermber 2013 №114, pp. 47-50 ISSB 1343-4225

29. The Position of the 1913 Mongolia-Tibet Treaty in the Royal (All Elevated) Mongol State Diplomacy
Author: D.Ulambayar Lungta 17, The Centennial of the Tibeto-Mongol Treaty: 1913-2013 Spring 2013, pp.61-65

30. Implementation of Autonomous Unmanned Aerial Vehicle with Moving-Object Detection and Face Recognition
Author: Sanjaa Bold, Batchimeg Sosorbaram, Seong Ro Lee Information Science and Applications (ICISA), Volume 376 of the series Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering pp 361-370, 2016

31. Autonomous Vision Based Facial and voice Recognition on the Unmanned Aerial Vehicle
Author: Sanjaa Bold, Batchimeg Sosorbaram, Bat-Erdene Batsukh, Seong Ro Lee 2016 February 16 Volume 4 Issue 2 , International Journal on Recent and Innovation Trends in Computing and Communication (IJRITCC), ISSN: 2321-8169, PP: 243 – 249

32. Simplification of Point Set Surfaces using Bilateral Filter and Multi-Sized Splats
Author: Batchimeg SOSORBARAM, Tadahiro FUJIMOTO, Norishige CHIBA 芸術科学会論文誌 Vol. 9 No. 3 pp.140-153

33. The effect of bilingualism on syntactic and semantic recognition in children
Author: Delgertsetseg. Ch, Nyamsuren. D and Chuluundorj. B International Conference on Auditory Cortex. 10-15 September, 2017 Banff, Canada


Introduction: Bilingualism is beneficial in development of cognitive function in children. The benefits are not limited to improvements in social communication skills, sensitivity to language structures, details, grammar, conflict solving, creativity, analogical reasoning, classification, cognitive flexibility, inhibition and dementia prevention. However, bilingualism effect on cognitive processing of syntactic and semantic violations is not well understood yet. This study aimed to determine the effect of bilingualism on event related potentials (ERP) during semantic and syntactic violation tasks in children and adolescents.

Methods: 76 Mongolian native speakers were randomly selected from Ulaanbaatar city, Mongolia. From them, 36 subjects were bilinguals and 40 were monolinguals (control group), 58% female and 42% male, aged 3-21. Half of the subjects had semantic tasks and half - syntactic. Among 36 bilinguals, 26 were Mongolian-English and 10 were Mongolian-Russian bilinguals. Visual and auditory stimuli were presented to the subjects in pictures, followed by Mongolian sentences one word per time. Auditory stimuli (22 Hz, 60 dB) were recorded in acoustically shielded room by female native speaker 1 word every 2 seconds. Half of the sentences had syntactically or semantically incongruent words and half – congruent words. In semantic tasks the target words were either nouns, verbs or adjectives. The subjects had 64 trials, 3 seconds per one word stimulus. Brain electric waves were measured during the task presentations by using WEEG32 recording Laxtha Inc., Korea) and 21 electrode caps (Electro-cap Inc., USA). The following programs were used for recording and analyzing of the waves: Telescan (Laxtha Inc., Korea), Matlab 2017 (Mathworks Inc., USA), ICA on EEGlab (UCSD, USA), ERPlab (Github Inc., USA), GraphPad Prism (GraphPad software Inc., USA).

Results : In experiments with semantic violation tasks, N400, P300 and P600 are known to be important ERP peaks in semantic tasks and averages of their amplitude and latency were assessed after an onset of stimuli within 350450, 250-350 and 500-800 millisecond (ms) intervals accordingly. This study showed that mono- and bilinguals had significant differences in the electrophysiological analysis of these peaks. Bilingual brain spends significantly lower efforts for processing of semantically incongruent words than monolinguals, but with a same processing speed in terms of N400, P300 and P600. Semantically incongruent words activate a dominant brain hemisphere with differences between mono- and bilinguals. While N400, P300 and P600 were mainly elicited in parietal and occipital sites in monolinguals, in bilinguals they had frontal and parietal involvement. Age of bilinguals and initiation period of their second language study (L2 onset) significantly affected latency, but not the location and power of brain activation. For instance, N400 latency was significantly lower when bilinguals initiated L2 earlier in life well before age 9. Length of L2 exposure (L2 duration) affected only P300 latency and lower latency was associated with longer L2 duration, i.e. 9-13 years. Additionally L2 types (English and Russian) did not affect the ERP results in semantic tasks. In experiments with syntactic violation tasks, the ERP peaks such as ELAN, N400 and P600 are known to be elicited during syntactic tasks and were assessed after the onset of stimuli in the range of 150-250, 350-450 and 500-800 ms accordingly. Similarly to the semantic tasks, in syntactic tasks peak amplitudes were also significantly lower in bilinguals than in monolinguals. Age of the subjects and L2 onset period, but not L2 duration and type, significantly affected expression of ELAN, N400 and P600. Thus, amplitude of peak effects was significantly lower in bilinguals than in monolinguals at their ages 3-6 especially in frontal positions.

Conclusion: Bilingualism is beneficial in cognitive processing of semantic and syntactic tasks in native language. Main benefits can be observed when bilinguals are exposed to their second language earlier in their lives.


34. Early L2 learning is advantageous in processing of syntactic violation in bilinguals
Author: Chuluundorj. B, Delgertsetseg. Ch 2017 Seoul International Conference on Speech Sciences. 10-11 November, Seoul, South Korea



Brain processing of syntactic material can be altered by bilingualism [1] (i.e. mastering of two languages simultaneously). According to Piaget J., cognitive development of children depends on their age and can be divided into 4 stages: sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational and formal operational. However, the effect of bilingualism on brain processing of sentence grammar and structure violations during these development stages in Mongolian bilinguals is not well known. The recent study aimed to investigate brain function in processing of syntactic information by analysing brain peak waves, such as LAN (left anterior negativity), N400 and P600 in Mongolian monolinguals (control group) and bilinguals.


20 Mongolian monolinguals and 18 bilinguals aged 3-21 were randomly chosen from the Ulaanbaatar city, Mongolia. From the bilinguals, 13 were Mongolian-English and 5 were MongolianRussian, where English and Russian were their second languages (L2). Quantitative electroencephalography was used to record brain event related potentials (ERP) using WEEG32 (Laxta Inc., Korea) in 21 head positions by using international 10-20 system. Speech was presented to the volunteers as sentences with correct or anomalous syntaxes in native language, one word a time. Independent component analysis was used to obtain clean brain waves free of artefacts. Softwares, such as Telescan, Matlab, EEGlab, ERPlab and GraphPad Prism were used for the analysis.

Results and Discussion:

Bilinguals had lower amplitude power of ELAN, N400 and P600 peaks and higher latency of P600 than monolinguals. This indicates that less effort, but more time is required for processing of speech syntactic violation in bilinguals. Also, the localization of brain activation was different between the two groups in 21 scalp recording sites. ELAN peak is elicited in relation to identification processes of word forms and category [2], whereas N400 plays a role in identification and integration of semantic and morpho-syntactic information [3]. P600 effect is associated with reanalysis and repair of syntactic input [4]. Thus, amplitude power of these peaks during the syntactic tasks indicate on the brain activation power during the processes of word form/category identification (ELAN), morpho-syntactic integration (N400) and reanalysis/repair (P600) of the syntactic input in the brain. Brain activation during syntactic recognition in spoken and written sentences significantly differed among age groups in both mono- and bilinguals. In “between the groups analysis”, the main difference was observed in children aged 3-6 where amplitudes of all three peaks were significantly higher in monolinguals than in bilinguals. Also, similar amplitude differences in N400 and P600 were at ages 9-12 and in ELAN – at ages 12-15. However, there was no significant amplitude difference at other ages. “Within the groups analysis” showed that monolinguals have highest brain activation, in terms of ELAN, N400 and P600 powers, at ages 3-9 and this decreases with an increase in age. Unlike monolinguals, bilinguals had highest activation at only ages 6-9, but not 3-6. At ages 3-6 they had significantly lower peak amplitude than at ages 6-9 and older. These results suggest that bilinguals spend significantly lower brain power for processing of syntactic violations especially at preoperational stages of development (ages 3-6), differently from the monolinguals. Peak latency of ELAN and N400 did not differ in both groups as well as at various ages. The only latency difference was observed in P600, which was higher in bilinguals than in monolinguals in adolescents (at ages 18-21). Although there was no difference within bilinguals, the monolinguals had a lowest P600 peak latency at ages 9-12 in comparison to other ages. These results indicate that mono- and bilingual children at ages 3-18 process syntactic information with the same speed, however in monolinguals, the quickest processing can occur at late concrete operational stage of development (ages 9-12). L2 onset age, i.e. age at which the second language learning was initiated, had also a significant impact on processing of syntactic information in bilinguals. ELAN, N400 and P600 peak amplitudes were lower at L2 onset ages 3-6 and the lowest amplitude power was detected at L2 onset ages 6-12, in comparison to monolinguals or bilinguals with L2 onset ages below 3. N400 and P600 peak latencies did not alter with various L2 onsets. However, ELAN peak latency was significantly lower when L2 learning was initiated at ages 6-9 in comparison to all other onset ages (data not shown), indicating on the quickest word identification and categorization abilities of bilinguals when L2 learning is initiated at these early ages. Although longer duration of L2 learning can be beneficial (data not shown), the types of L2, such as English and Russian, did not affect the syntactic processing abilities in bilinguals. Thus, the long term benefits of bilingualism in syntactic speech processing can be observed when bilinguals start learning their second language earlier at preoperational and concrete operational stages of cognitive development, i.e. at ages 3-12.


Brain processing of speech syntactic information in native language is less effortful for bilinguals, in comparison to monolinguals. The advantages of bilingualism can be mostly observed when the L2 learning is initiated earlier in their lives – at preoperational and concrete operational stages of their cognitive development.


[1] Moreno, S., Bialystok, E., Wodniecka, Z. & Alain, C. (2010). Conflict resolution in sentence processing by bilinguals. Journal Neurolinguistics, 23(6), 564-579.
[2] Steinhauer, K., Drury, JE (2012). On the early left anterior negativity (ELAN) in syntax studies. Brain and Language, 120, 135-162.
[3] Osterhout, L. (1992). Event-related potentials elicited by syntactic anomaly. Journal of Memory and Language, 31, 785-806.
[4] Kaan, E., Harris, A., Gibson, E. & Holcomb, P. (2000). The P600 is an index of syntactic integration difficulty. Language and Cognitive Processes, 15(2), 159-201.